心智模式:心智模式的更多資料

心智模式資料
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Mental models represent explicitly what is true, but not what is false.

不同的模型意味著不同的可能性,從這個前提上來說。沒有錯誤的心智模式。心智模式是不會錯的,只有對的心智模式,沒有錯誤的心智模式。

The greater the number of models that a task elicits, and the greater the complexity of individual models, the poorer performance is. Resoners focus on a subset of the possible models of multiple-model problems – often just a single model – and are led to erroneous conclusions and irrational decisions.

在同一個任務中間,模型越復雜,參與的模型越多,表現就越差。這也可以很好的解釋很多事情,往往在商業上面獲勝的人,不是滿腹經綸系統化思考的人,而是把簡單事情重復做到極致的人。添高危打網球的視頻也告訴我們,為什么那個老太太可以20分鐘有很好的表現?就是因為她只采取了很簡單的系統,很輕松的心智模式

Mental models are strongly conservative: left unchallenged, they will?cause us to see what we have always seen: the same needs, the same?opportunities, the same results. And because we see what our mental?models permit us to see, we do what our mental models permit us to do.

心智模式是非常保守的,完全沒有任何挑戰的,他讓我們看到我們經常時常看到的、感到同樣的需求、看到同樣的機會、收獲同樣的結果。因為我只會看到我們的心智允許我們看到的,做我們的心智允許我們去做的。

Because mental models “limit us to familiar ways of thinking and acting,”

因為心智模式把我們限制在熟悉的思考和行動方式中。人們去做一個計劃,卻還是按照過去的心智模式,這讓他們的計劃看上去好像電影的劇本。

According to the theory of mental models, we are saving all perceived?stimulation and observations to our memory in the form of abstract?models , which are cognitive constructs formed by basic sensory?information, and are combined with already saved information. Prof.?Jay Wright Forrester?defined a mental model as:?”The image of the world around us, which we carry in our head, is just a model. Nobody in his head imagines all the world, government or country. He has only selected concepts, and relationships between them, and uses those to represent the real system.

根據心智模式的理論,我們保存素有的接收到的刺激與觀察結果到我們的記憶中間,并且建立起來抽象的模式。我們通過最原始的感官刺激去認知上建構他們,同時還與已經存下來的信息混合在一起。PROF??這樣定義心智模式:我們身邊世界的圖像,在我們腦子里面的,只是一個模型。沒有人在腦子里面建構出所有的世界,政府或者國家。他只是選擇他們之間的概念、關系,然后用這些去代表整個系統。

The term is believed to have been originated by?Kenneth Craik?in his 1943 book?The Nature of Explanation. After the early death of Craik in a bicycle accident, the idea was not elaborated on until much later. Before Craik,Georges-Henri Luquet?had already developed this idea to some extent: in his seminal book?Le dessin enfantin(Children’s Drawings), published in 1927 by Alcan, Paris, he argued that children obviously construct?internal models, a view that influenced, among others,?Jean Piaget.

Two books, both titled Mental Models, appeared in 1983?[7]?One was by?Philip Johnson-Laird, a professor atPrinceton University‘s?Department of Psychology. The other was a collection of articles edited by?Dedre Gentnerand?Albert Stevens. The first line of this book helps explain the idea further: “One function of this chapter is to belabor the obvious; people’s views of the world, of themselves, of their own capabilities, and of the tasks that they are asked to perform, or topics they are asked to learn, depend heavily on the conceptualizations that they bring to the task.” See?Mental Models (Gentner-Stevens book).

這個章節的一個重要功能就是討論人們對于世界的看法,對于他自己和他們自己的能力,還有對他們他們被要求去做的任務,他們被要求去學習的內容,深深的取決于他們進入這個任務中間的概念。?

Since then there has been much discussion and use of the idea in?human-computer interaction?and?usability?by people such as?Donald Norman?and by?Steve Krug?in his book?Don’t Make Me Think. Walter Kintsch and?Teun A. van Dijk, using the term?situation model?(in their book?Strategies of Discourse Comprehension, 1983), showed the relevance of mental models for the production and comprehension of discourse.

Each model represents a possibility.?Its structure corresponds to the structure of the world, but it has symbols for negation, probability, believability, and so on. Models that are kinematic or dynamic unfold in time to represent sequences of events.

每一個模式意味著一個可能性:模式的架構與世界的架構相呼應。但是他擁有關于否定、可能性、可信度等等一系列的標志。心智模型們是動態的或者動力的及時打開去代表一系列的事件。

Models are iconic insofar as possible, that is, their parts and relations correspond to those of the situations that they represent. They underlie visual images, but they also represent abstractions, and so they can represent the extensions of all sorts of relations. They can also be supplemented by symbolic elements to represent, for example, negation.

模式盡可能的去隱喻所有東西:也就是說,模式的部分和關系對應著他們那些他們代表的部分。他們通過圖像展現,但是他們同時代表著抽象的東西,所以他們可以代表各種各樣的延伸的關系。他們還可以被符號化的元素所填補去代表,比如說否定。

Models explain deduction, induction, and explanation.?In a valid deduction, the conclusion holds for all models of the premises. In an induction, knowledge eliminates models of possibilities, and so the conclusion goes beyond the information given. In an abduction, knowledge introduces new concepts in order to yield an explanation.

模式可以解釋演繹,歸納和詮釋:在一個有效的演繹中,結論作為所有系統的前提。在一個歸納中,知識消除有可能性的模式,所以結論就會在給予的信息之上。在一個外展中間,知識引入新的概念去產生一個解釋。

The theory gives a ‘dual process’ account of reasoning.?System 1 constructs initial models of premises and is restricted in computational power, i.e., it cannot carry out recursive inferences. System 2 can follow up the consequences of consequences recursively, and therefore search for counterexamples, where a counterexample is a model of the premises in which the conclusion does not hold.?

模式理論給予一個推論的雙處理流程賬戶:系統1構建了一個關于初始數據的模型,嚴格的按照計算的方式來運作。也就是說,他不能實現回歸的推論。系統2澤可以根據隨之而來的結果做回歸,這樣來找到反例,在這些反例中間,初始數據的不能得到這個結論的。

The greater the number of alternative models needed, the harder it is:?we take longer and are more likely to err, especially by overlooking a possibility,In the simulation of a sequence of events, the later in the sequence that a critical event occurs, the longer it will take us to make the inference about it.?

可替代的模型數目越多,表現就越糟糕:?我們花更長的時間,而我們也更容易在模擬系列事件中出錯。尤其是通過忽略了可能性。在系列中間,重要事件發生得越晚,我們就要花越長的時間獲得推論。

The principle of truth: mental models represent only what is true, and accordingly they predict the occurrence of systematic and compelling fallacies if inferences depend on what is false. An analogous principle applies to the representation of what is possible rather than impossible, to what is permissible rather than impermissible, and to other similar contrasts.

真理原則:心智模式只會呈現真實的東西:同樣的,他們展示系統性的事件和強制性的錯誤當推論是來自于錯誤的東西。模式體現里的類似的原則是:有可能的高于不可能的,能允許的高于不被允許的。

The meanings of terms such as ‘if’ can be modulated by content and knowledge. For example, our geographical knowledge modulates the disjunction: Jay is in Stockholm or he is in Sweden. Unlike most disjunctions, this one yields a definite conclusion: Jay is in Sweden.

條件比如說“如果”的意義能通過內容和數據來調整:比如說,我們的地理知識能夠調整這個邏輯命題。JAY不是在斯德哥爾摩(瑞典首都)就是在瑞典。不想大部分的二選一命題,這個會產出一個確定的結論,JAY在瑞典。

We should also add that the theory accounts for the informality of arguments in science and daily life, whereas logic is notoriously of little help in analyzing them. If people base such arguments on mental models, then there is no reason to suppose that they will lay them out like the steps of a formal proof. The theory of mental models, however, is not a paragon. It is radically incomplete; and it is likely to have?problems and deficiencies. Proponents of rule theories have accused it of every conceivable shortcoming from blatant falsehood to untestability. It postulates that human reasoners can in principle see the force of counterexamples, and indeed people are able to construct them — a competence that is beyond the power of formal rule theories to explain. The model theory may well be overturned by counterexamples predicted by a superior theory. In which case, it will at least have had the virtue of accounting for its own demise.

我們還應該加上說,這個理論基于科學和日常生活非正式的論點,在這個領域,邏輯分析沒有什么幫助,也沒有什么好名聲。如果人們基于這樣一個心智模式的論點,他們就沒有任何理由支持他們有必要安排形式化的證據。關于心智模式的理論并不是一個完美范例。他激進所以不完整,他也有問題和抗議。邏輯理論的支持者們因為他們的每一個可想到的缺點——從喧囂的錯誤到不可測。他假設理性人可以原則性的看到反例的力量,而且人們還可以構建他們。這是一個邏輯理論無法解釋的能力。心智模式理論也許會被更高級理論提出的反例來推翻。在這種情況下,他至少可以有用處來解釋他自己的消逝。

延伸閱讀

此文章所在專題列表如下:

  1. 心智模式:什么是心智模式?
  2. 心智模式:一些科學的概念
  3. 心智模式:如何改善我們的心智模式?
  4. 心智模式:心智模式成熟的標志
  5. 心智模式:認識你自己
  6. 心智模式:如何面對逆境?
  7. 心智模式:如何看待成敗?
  8. 心智模式:仁者見仁、智者見智
  9. 心智模式:心智模式的更多資料

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